The golden eagle is found in a variety of latitudes and habitats in the Palearctic and North Africa. Its North American breeding range includes most of Canada and Alaska as well as the western half of the United States and northern and western Mexico. Most eagles that breed in northern Canada and inland and northern Alaska travel thousands of miles to find their wintering grounds. When not on the ground, southern eagles migrate north, latitude or altitude. Outside of the breeding season, golden eagles are found in Mexico, all US states, and southern Canada. It is most common in western North America, especially near open terrain with many dams, bluffs, or trees that provide nesting sites and topography that produces the thermals necessary for flight. Recent research has revealed that golden eagles are more common than previously thought in eastern North America, as well as in forested areas of the continent, and that juveniles may spend their summers in large numbers in the vast and productive wetlands of the far a north of the country. America.
One of the largest birds of prey in the world, the golden eagle is well known in the history and knowledge of modern and ancient mankind, inspiring respect, admiration and, on rare occasions, fear and hatred. Humans intentionally and unintentionally kill golden eagles by setting traps, shooting, poisoning, electrocuting, and crashing into infrastructure and cars. In addition, many traditional foraging and nesting sites are affected by urbanization, the construction of infrastructure for energy production and transmission, agricultural expansion and forest fires. The golden eagle would be exposed to a series of new threats due to the increase in global warming. According to recent models, some eagle populations are stable or even increasing, but most North American breeding populations are declining or below their carrying capacity, in part due to human mortality.
Most golden eagles do not establish their breeding grounds until they are four years old. Once an individual establishes a territory, it appears to remain there throughout the breeding season, defending a territory that is typically 20-30 square kilometres, but can be much smaller or larger depending on location, habitat quality and of availability. . This species builds and maintains many stick nests in its range. Some of them are maintained and repaired every year as part of the courtship. The reproductive cycle can last as little as 5 months in migratory birds and up to 12 months in non-migratory birds, including the dependency period after fledging. Golden eagle pairs have one to three young each year, and an individual has the ability to have several young during its lifetime. Females may choose not to spawn within a few years, especially when prey is scarce. The number of calves each year is determined by a combination of climatic and stable conditions.
Size, Shape and Colour Patterns
The golden eagle is one of the largest birds in North America. The wings are similar to those of a red-tailed hawk, but larger. The head appears small from a distance and the tail appears long, extending further back than the head forward. The nape and neck of adult golden eagles are dark brown with a golden sheen. Young birds have distinctive white markings at the base of the tail and on the wings during their first few years of life. Golden eagles soar or soar with their wings raised in a slight V shape and their wing tip feathers spread like fingers. They are usually found singly or in pairs. They hover, fly close to the ground, or start from a perch and catch their prey on or near the ground.
The use of different environments by the golden eagle varies over time and space, and is often related to the season, age, state of reproduction and specific behaviours. The species is present at sea level, in the highest mountains and at all intermediate altitudes. The species is found in a variety of forest environments including open grasslands, deserts, alpine and steppe ecosystems (e.g. western North America, Scotland, central Asia, the Alps and the Apennines) (s. B. northeast). America, Sweden, Japan). The fact that it is commonly found near areas of high topographical significance is perhaps its most enduring habitat association (mountains, foothills). This association is also not absolute, particularly during the non-breeding season when wintering eagles are found in more varied terrain where perches and prey are plentiful. For example, the populated regions of Northern Kazakhstan, Northern Alaska, and Northern Quebec are surprisingly flat. The species is rarely found in bodies of water and appears to avoid crossing large areas of open water. It avoids densely populated areas, but some nest near homes or other structures in California and Switzerland and possibly elsewhere.
Movement and Migration of Golden Hawk Bird
Once born, the golden eagle is highly mobile throughout its life. Almost all locomotion is aerial, while individuals can cover long distances on foot. Thermal or orographic updrafts are used for flight, flapping motions are used only when absolutely necessary. While large numbers of birds are counted at some movement counting stations, telemetry surveys provide more information on individual movements. Most of what we know about bird movements comes from North America and Europe, and we know much less about bird movements in Africa and Asia.
Permanent populations, partial migrations or short, medium and long distance migrations are possible. Non-migratory island populations (e.g. in the UK) are common and the birds prefer to stay in nearby territories all year round. Continental non-migratory bird populations are more likely to fly greater distances than their insular counterparts. Migrants can travel short distances (e.g. Scandinavia) or extremely long distances (e.g. northern Alaska and Canada to southern USA and Mexico) and travel north to south or south to north at any time of the year.
Golden eagles are considered companions. During courtship, a breeding pair is formed. In this courtship behavior, both members of the pair perform wave-like motions in which the male picks up a piece of rock or stick and drops it, then dives three or more times to catch it in the air. The female picks up a lump, drops it and picks it up in the same way. Golden eagles create several nests on their territory (preferably cliffs) and use them alternately for several years. The intense regularity of the distance between the nests characterizes their nesting sites. Mating times and egg laying vary among golden eagles, depending on where they live. Copulation lasts an average of 10 to 20 seconds. Mating appears to occur 40 to 46 days before spawning. The golden eagle chick can be heard 15 hours before hatching. There is no surgery for about 27 hours after the first egg hatches. After this period, the hatching activity resumes and the shell cracks within 35 hours. In 37 hours, the lady is completely free. Chicks usually rest on the nest layer for the first 10 days. The eagles groom themselves on day two, but are kept warm by their brooding parents until they are 20 days old. The young grow rapidly and reach a weight of about 500 g in just ten days. At this age they also begin to sit up straight.
At around 20 days old the chicks begin to stand, which becomes their main task for the next 40 days. The whitish down remains until the birds are about 25 days old. They are then replaced with dark-edged feathers that hide the down and give the birds a pale appearance. After hatching, the adult male captures 80% of the food and 90% of the food biomass and carries it to the nest. In Idaho, reproduction lasts between 66 and 75 days, while in Scotland between 70 and 81 days. Once grown, young may make their first attempt at flight, hopping up and down with a series of short, stiff wingbeats, or be flung out of the nest while flapping their wings. Young eagles make their first circling flight 18 to 20 days after flight, but may not reach altitude as quickly as their parents until 60 days after flight. Juvenile golden eagles were first seen hunting large game 59 days after hatching in Cumbria. The young were mostly independent of their parents for 75-85 days after birth. In general, reproductive success appears to be greatest when prey is plentiful.
Golden eagles are long-lived birds in their natural habitat. The survival rate of raptors increases with body size, with an annual population loss rate of 30-50% for falcons/small birds of prey, an annual population loss rate of 15-25% for large falcons. average (e.g. buteos or kites) and an annual population loss rate of 5% or less in eagles and vultures. A bird caught in Sweden and rescued 32 years later was the oldest wild golden eagle ever recorded. In North America, the longest-lived wild golden eagle was 31 years and 8 months old. One specimen in Europe, the longest captive golden eagle ever, lived to be 46 years old. On the Scottish Isle of Skye, the annual adult survival rate is expected to be around 97.5%. Extrapolating this to an approximate life expectancy, the record for adult golden eagles in this region is 39.5 years, which may be an overestimate. Juvenile eagle survival rates are usually much lower than adult eagle survival rates. Fifty percent of breeding golden eagles died by age two and a half, and about 75% died by age five in the western Rockies. Based on traditional telemetry of 257 individuals near a wind turbine in west-central California, approximate survival rates were 84% for first-year eagles, 79% for one-year-old, 3-year-old swimming eagles and adults and 91% for creators. , with no differences in survival rates between the sexes. Migratory populations of golden eagles may have lower survival rates. During the first 11 months, juvenile eagles in Denali National Park had a 19 to 34 percent survival rate. Golden eagles in Germany have an average lifespan of 13 years, based on a recorded survival rate of 92.5%.
Natural causes of death are often described in anecdotes. On rare occasions, golden eagles have been killed by rival predators or by hunting carnivorous mammals, including attacks by wolverines, snow leopards, pumas, brown bears, and white-tailed sea eagles. Most competitive attacks that end fatally occur in the clutches of other golden eagles. Young and hatchlings are more likely to be killed by another predator than free-flying young and old. Golden eagle nests are blamed for being attacked more by other predators, in areas where humans often threaten golden eagle nests. Jeff Watson thinks crows rarely eat golden eagle eggs, only when the parents have stopped breeding. There have been no reports of other bird species attacking golden eagle nests. Golden eagles are sometimes killed by their prey in self-defense. A golden eagle is said to have been killed by the quills of a porcupine it was trying to catch in North America. There have been reports of red deer trampling golden eagles to death in Scotland, possibly from a stag catching a bird trying to kill a deer. Although other large birds are generally superior to the predator, they sometimes fight with a golden eagle. Both birds died of wounds sustained in the ensuing fight after a golden eagle tried to capture a heron. In Scotland, a golden eagle died after being "oiled" by a fulmar, a bird whose main defense against predators is to secrete an oily secretion that can impair the predator's ability to fly. Due to natural causes of death, starvation should not be reported. 11 of the 16 eagles that died after hatching in Denali National Park died of starvation. In Idaho, 55% of golden eagle deaths were likely due to natural causes, with 8 (26%) dying from unknown injuries, 3 (10%) dying from disease, and 6 (19%) dying from unknown causes. Only 6% of the 266 golden eagle deaths in Spain were caused by unexplained causes that could not be linked to human activities. Eagles that eat sick waterfowl contract avian cholera, caused by bacteria. In a study of wild golden eagles in Idaho, the protozoan Trichomonas sp. killed four puppies. In Japan, researchers looked at other diseases that kill golden eagles. Two malignant tumors, one in the liver and the other in the kidney, killed a captive eagle.
Status and Conservation
The golden eagle once inhabited much of temperate Europe, northern Asia, North America, northern Africa, and Japan. Golden eagles have experienced severe population declines and have even been exterminated in some parts of their range, although they are common and relatively safe in some areas. The total number of golden eagles in the area is estimated to be between 170,000 and 250,000, with breeding pairs ranging from 60,000 to 100,000. Covering approximately 140 million square kilometers, it has the widest distribution known to all members of its family. Considering its taxonomic order, it is second only to the osprey (Pandion haliaetus) for distribution. Few other eagle species are as numerous as the golden eagle, but some species such as the wood eagle, wedge-tailed eagle, and bald eagle, despite their range, have estimated total numbers comparable to that of the 'Golden Eagle. The African fish eagle (Haliaeetus vocifer), whose total population is estimated at 300,000 and is found only in Africa, is perhaps the most populous eagle in the world. The IUCN does not consider the golden eagle to be globally threatened.
The golden eagle mainly hunts rabbits, hares, ground squirrels and prairie dogs, although it can kill large prey such as cranes, wild ungulates and cattle.
The amount of white on a young golden eagle's wings varies from person to person, and some have no white at all.
The golden eagle is the best known official national animal in the world and serves as the symbol of Albania, Germany, Austria, Mexico and Kazakhstan.
Golden eagles have avoided damage from DDT and chemicals related to raptors or fish-eating birds due to their frequent prey (mammals) tend not to ingest pesticides. These pesticides thinned the eggshells of many birds of prey, but golden eagle eggshells retained their natural thickness. Blood levels of pesticides remained below levels associated with reproductive problems.
Birds of prey are electrocuted when the wings or feet of large birds accidentally cross the lines that protrude and form a continuous loop. Biologists, engineers and government officials have worked together to build and promote prototype electric poles that minimize raptor electrocution. Since the early 1970s, utility companies have modified poles to prevent electrocution from eagles. Several new power lines with "bird-proof" construction features have been installed in extra-urban areas.
Piracy, a centuries-old falconry technique, of eagles is recovering. Cage- and laboratory-raised chicks are fed by humans in a hollow nest-like area until the birds are 12 weeks old. At this point the cage opens and the birds begin to feed. Over a period of several weeks, the puppies receive handouts from the hack site managers until they are completely independent in nature.
When discovered in Utah in 2012, the oldest known golden eagle was at least 31 years and 8 months old. In 1980 it was banned in the same state
There is a company called Golden Eagle Inc.
The golden eagle is a dark brown eagle with lanceolate golden nape feathers, dark eyes, yellow cere, gray beak and feathered wings, large yellow feet, and large talons. The wingspan is up to 2.3 meters. It is the national bird of Mexico. The golden eagle is found throughout North America, from central Mexico to Alaska and Newfoundland, along the Pacific coast and in the Rocky Mountains. Smaller quantities are found as far north as North Carolina in the Appalachians. The golden eagle is protected by federal law in the United States, but special permits are needed to shoot eagles in locations where birds are believed to kill lambs. Golden eagles build their nests in burrows carved into cliffs or in solitary trees. There are one to four (usually two) eggs in the clutch, ranging in color from white to mottled brown. Both parents incubate the eggs for 40-45 days. After about three months the chicks leave the nest (usually only one or two survive). On rare occasions, golden eagles have been killed by rival predators or by hunting carnivorous mammals. Young and hatchlings are more likely to be killed by another predator than free-flying young and old. Eagles that eat sick waterfowl contract avian cholera, caused by bacteria. Due to natural causes of death, starvation should not be reported. Only 6% of the 266 golden eagle deaths in Spain were caused by unexplained causes that could not be linked to human activities. Most of the simultaneous attacks that end in death occur in the clutches of other golden eagles.